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Table 1 Experimental studies in mice investigating the effect of ambient particulate matters, or DEP on the gut microbiota, intestinal tract, liver, and/or glucose metabolism (M, males; F, females)

From: Diesel exhaust particles alter the profile and function of the gut microbiota upon subchronic oral administration in mice

  Mouse model Diet Route Material Dose Duration Effect on
Gut Liver Glucos GM
Tomaru et al. 2007 [29] db/db, F standard intratracheal DEP 100 μg/2 wk 12, 18 wk   +   
Sun et al. 2009 [10] C57Bl/6, M high fat inhalation PM2.5 72.7 μg/m3 24 wk    +  
Nemmar et al. 2013 [30] streptozocin-induced diabetic TO, M standard Intratracheal DEP 400 μg/kg b.w. 24 h   +   
Kish et al. 2013 [25] w.t. and IL-10−/−  129/Sv standard gavage urban PM10 18 μg/g b.w./d
10–13 μg/g/d
7–14 d
35 d
+    +
Salim et al. 2014 [26] IL-10−/− 129/Sv, F standard food urban PM10 9 μg/g food 10–20 wk +    +
Li et al. 2017 [27] Ldlr−/− C57Bl/6, M Western diet gavage UFP 3 × 40 μg/wk      +
Xu et al. 2017 [31] w.t. and nrf2−/− C57Bl/6, M standard inhalation PM2.5 64 μg/m3 12 wk   + +  
Mutlu et al. 2018 [22] C57Bl/6, M standard inhalation PM 135 μg/m3 3 wk     +
Wang et al. 2018 [23] C57Bl/6j, M standard inhalation PM2.5 276 ± 170 μg/m3 1 y    + +
Li et al. 2019 [32] C57Bl/6, MF standard inhalation DEP 300 μg/m3, 1 h/d 28 d +    +
Fitch et al. 2020 [33] ApoE−/−, M high fat inhalation mixed diesel and gasoline exhaust dust 300 μg/m3 50 d +    +
present study C57Bl/6, F standard gavage DEP 3x(40, 200 or 1000 ng)/wk 24 wk     +
ApoE−/−, F Western    3x(200 or 1000 ng)/wk 12 wk