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Table 1 Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) used in the present study

From: Landscape of lipidomic metabolites in gut-liver axis of Sprague–Dawley rats after oral exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Property Method TiO2 NPs
Shape SEM Spherical
Average diameter SEM 29 ± 9 nm
Atomic percentage of Ti EDS 32.66 ± 0.24%
Atomic percentage of O EDS 67.34 ± 0.96%
Crystal structure XRD Anatase
Purity ICP-MS 99.90%
Specific surface area BET 77.51 ± 0.29 m2/g
Hydrodynamic diameter in H2O DLS 40.8 ± 0.38 nm
Hydrodynamic diameter in AGJ DLS 149.3 ± 33.9 nm
Hydrodynamic diameter in AIG DLS 168.1 ± 29.6 nm
Zeta potential in H2O DLS 11.09 ± 1.23 mV
Zeta potential in AGJ DLS 4.73 ± 0.52 mV
Zeta potential in AIJ DLS  − 13.7 ± 0.92 mV
  1. SEM, scanning electron microscopy; EDS, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; XRD, X-ray powder diffractometry; ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; BET, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; H2O, ultrapure water; AGJ, artificial gastric juice; AIJ, artificial intestinal juice; DLS, dynamic light scattering