Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of pharmacokinetic studies in rats after oral, intravenous (IV), intratracheal instillation (IT) and inhalation (IH) administration for model calibration and evaluation

From: Development of a multi-route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nanomaterials: a comparison between a traditional versus a new route-specific approach using gold nanoparticles in rats

Exposure route Size (nm)a Coating Dose (µg) Post-exposure sampling times (hours) Tissues sampled Strain References
Calibration
IV 1.4, 5, 18, 80, 200 Citrate 3.2–32.9 1, 24 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Rt, U Wistar − Kyoto rats [33]
Oral 5, 18, 80, 200 Citrate 2.6–28.8 1, 24 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Rt, U Wistar − Kyoto rats [34]
IT 1.4, 5, 18, 80, 200 Citrate 3.0–40.7 1, 3, 24 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Rt, U Wistar − Kyoto rats [35]
IH 23 Citrate 20.1 2, 4, 24, 168, 672 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Rt Wistar − Kyoto rats [36]
Validation
IV 22.4, 33.2, 33.7, 35.1, 34.9 Citrate, 11-MUA, CALNN, CALND, CALNS 1 24 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Mu, Br, Bo, Rt Wistar rats [47]
IV 16.1 Citrate 0.7 672 Bl, GI, Lu, Li, Sp, Ki, Mu, Br, Bo, Rt Wistar rats [48]
  1. 11-MUA 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, CALNN Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn, CALNS Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Ser, CALND Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asp, Bl blood, Br brain, IV intravenous, Ki kidney, Lu lung, Li liver, Mu muscle, GI Gastrointestinal tract, Rt remaining tissues, Sp spleen, U urine
  2. aThe size represents the core diameter of AuNPs