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Table 2 Final multivariate linear regression models describing relationships between the physicochemical properties of AuNPs and biodistribution parameters following intravenous injection in rats

From: Development of a multi-route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nanomaterials: a comparison between a traditional versus a new route-specific approach using gold nanoparticles in rats

Tissue/Organ β 0 β1 β2 β3 β4 β5 β6 β7 BIC Adj-R2 p-value
Intravenous injection (IV)
 Maximum endocytosis/phagocytosis uptake rate
  Lung 3.77 0.01       − 0.11 5.54 0.93 0.03
  GI tract 48.2 − 0.08       − 1.47 15.8 0.99 0.02
  Liver 317   4.69      − 10.7 41.8 0.91 0.04
  Spleen − 1.23E4    178    5.28E3   50.9 0.80 0.09
  Kidney 2.02   − 0.49    3.59    11.0 0.93 0.03
  Rest of body 0.067   0.12    − 0.38    5.21 0.83 0.08
 Endocytosis/phagocytosis uptake capacity
  Lung − 448   3.01    44.7    35.8 0.97 0.01
  GI tract 29.4   − 3.04    46.6    34.7 0.98 0.01
  Liver 8.21E3      1.08E3   − 251 69.7 0.95 0.03
  Spleen − 76.1   131      − 151 74.7 0.91 0.05
  Kidney 228   − 64    467    57.2 0.96 0.02
  Rest of body − 126      12.2   6.01 36.7 0.98 0.01
 Release rate constant of phagocytic cells
  Lung − 4.17    0.058    1.78   − 24.3 0.48 0.26
  GI tract − 1.17   0.015 − 0.052      − 23.5 0.99 0.001
  Liver 0.07 − 3E−4     − 0.029    − 15.4 0.07 0.49
  Spleen − 0.22   0.004 − 0.009      − 56.5 0.99 3.64E-5
  Kidney 4.56 − 0.03     1.56    26.8 0.14 0.43
  Rest of body − 0.11 3E−3 0.031       − 11.8 0.96 0.018
 Urinary and fecal excretion constant rate
  Urine 3.5E−4   − 1E−4    7.4E−4    − 76.4 0.96 0.019
  Feces − 1.36 0.002       0.054 − 18.1 0.97 0.015
  Biliary 0.03 1.4E−4   0.001      − 58.6 0.98 0.001
  1. β0 and βi represent intercept and slope of variables included in the multivariate linear regression model, respectively [1: hydrodynamic diameter (HD); 2: surface area (SA); 3: Zeta potential (Z); 4: log(HD); 5: log(SA); 6: log(Z); 7: log-transformed number of NPs, log(NPs)]. The values in bold represent statistical significance of p < 0.05
  2. BIC Bayesian information criterion, Adj-R2 adjusted R2