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  1. Reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals can cause oxidative stress and mutations. Inhaled particulate matter can trigger formation of hydroxyl radicals, which have been implicated as one of the cau...

    Authors: Corey A Cohn, Sanford R Simon and Martin AA Schoonen
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008 5:2
  2. We have shown that pulmonary exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. Ultrafine PM has been suggested to be inherently more toxic by virtue of its...

    Authors: Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Dale W Porter, Ann F Hubbs, Jared L Cumpston, Bean T Chen, David G Frazer and Vincent Castranova
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008 5:1
  3. Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology...

    Authors: Barry Park, Patricia Martin, Chris Harris, Robert Guest, Andrew Whittingham, Peter Jenkinson and John Handley
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:12
  4. Nanotechnology in its widest sense seeks to exploit the special biophysical and chemical properties of materials at the nanoscale. While the potential technological, diagnostic or therapeutic applications are ...

    Authors: Christian Mühlfeld, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Dimitri Vanhecke, Fabian Blank, Peter Gehr and Matthias Ochs
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:11
  5. The study aims at revealing the fate of nanoparticles administered intravenously and intraperitoneally to adult female mice, some of which were pregnant. Gold nanoparticles were chosen as a model because these...

    Authors: Evaldas Sadauskas, Håkan Wallin, Meredin Stoltenberg, Ulla Vogel, Peter Doering, Agnete Larsen and Gorm Danscher
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:10
  6. Experimental studies provide evidence that inhaled nanoparticles may translocate over the airspace epithelium and cause increased cellular inflammation. Little is known, however, about the dependence of partic...

    Authors: Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Christian Mühlfeld, Fabian Blank, Claudia Musso and Peter Gehr
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:9
  7. Pesticides, in particular folpet, have been found in rural and urban air in France in the past few years. Folpet is a contact fungicide and has been widely used for the past 50 years in vineyards in France. Sl...

    Authors: Mireille Canal-Raffin, Beatrice L'Azou, Beatrice Martinez, Elisabeth Sellier, Fawaz Fawaz, Philip Robinson, Celine Ohayon-Courtès, Isabelle Baldi, Jean Cambar, Mathieu Molimard, Nicholas Moore and Patrick Brochard
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:8
  8. Translocation of nanoparticles (NP) from the pulmonary airways into other pulmonary compartments or the systemic circulation is controversially discussed in the literature. In a previous study it was shown tha...

    Authors: Christian Mühlfeld, Marianne Geiser, Nadine Kapp, Peter Gehr and Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:7
  9. Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM) related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated ...

    Authors: Leonidas Ntziachristos, John R Froines, Arthur K Cho and Constantinos Sioutas
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:5
  10. A symposium on the mechanisms of action of inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM), pathogenic particles and fibers such as silica and asbestos, and nanomaterials, defined as synthetic particles or fibers les...

    Authors: Brooke T Mossman, Paul J Borm, Vincent Castranova, Daniel L Costa, Kenneth Donaldson and Steven R Kleeberger
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:4
  11. Accurate characterization of the physicochemical properties of aerosols generated for inhalation toxicology studies is essential for obtaining meaningful results. Great emphasis must also be placed on characte...

    Authors: Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Mark D Hoover, Robert M Dickerson, Gregory A Day, Patrick N Breysse and Ronald C Scripsick
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:3
  12. The induction of cytokines by airway cells in vitro has been widely used to assess the effects of ambient and occupational particles. This study measured cytotoxicity and the release of the proinflammatory cytoki...

    Authors: John M Veranth, Erin G Kaser, Martha M Veranth, Michael Koch and Garold S Yost
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:2
  13. Epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution have consistently shown adverse cardiovascular effects. Toxicological studies have provided evidence for thrombogenic effects of particles.

    Authors: Regina Rückerl, Richard P Phipps, Alexandra Schneider, Mark Frampton, Josef Cyrys, Günther Oberdörster, H Erich Wichmann and Annette Peters
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007 4:1
  14. The harmful effects from inhalation of coal dust are well-documented. The prevalence of lung disease varies by mining region and may, in part, be related to regional differences in the bioavailable iron conten...

    Authors: Corey A Cohn, Richard Laffers, Sanford R Simon, Thomas O'Riordan and Martin AA Schoonen
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:16
  15. Nanotechnology is a rapidly advancing industry with many new products already available to the public. Therefore, it is essential to gain an understanding of the possible health risks associated with exposure ...

    Authors: James B Mangum, Elizabeth A Turpin, Aurita Antao-Menezes, Mark F Cesta, Edilberto Bermudez and James C Bonner
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:15
  16. Although nitric oxide is overproduced by macrophages and neutrophils after exposure to silica, its role in silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis needs further clarification. In this study, rats we...

    Authors: He Wang and James Leigh
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:14
  17. Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The...

    Authors: Annette Peters, Bellina Veronesi, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Peter Gehr, Lung Chi Chen, Marianne Geiser, William Reed, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Samuel Schürch and Holger Schulz
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:13
  18. Epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of cardiopulmonary-related hospitalization and death in association with exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) across a wide range of urba...

    Authors: Lindsay B Wichers, Allen D Ledbetter, John K McGee, Robert B Kellogg, William H Rowan III, Julianne P Nolan, Daniel L Costa and William P Watkinson
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:12
  19. During the last few years, research on toxicologically relevant properties of engineered nanoparticles has increased tremendously. A number of international research projects and additional activities are ongo...

    Authors: Paul JA Borm, David Robbins, Stephan Haubold, Thomas Kuhlbusch, Heinz Fissan, Ken Donaldson, Roel Schins, Vicki Stone, Wolfgang Kreyling, Jurgen Lademann, Jean Krutmann, David Warheit and Eva Oberdorster
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:11
  20. Particles are known to induce both cytokine release (MIP-2, TNF-α), a reduction in cell viability and an increased apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. To examine whether these responses are triggered by the sam...

    Authors: Magne Refsnes, Ragna B Hetland, Johan Øvrevik, Idunn Sundfør, Per E Schwarze and Marit Låg
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:10
  21. Human β-defensin (hBD)-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels i...

    Authors: Hae Yun Nam, Eun-Kyung Ahn, Hyung Jung Kim, Young Lim, Chun Beoun Lee, Kyo Young Lee and Val Vallyathan
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:9
  22. An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to investigate the size and chemical composition of fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in the size range 0.2–2.6 μm produced by a Versatile...

    Authors: Evelyn J Freney, Mathew R Heal, Robert J Donovan, Nicholas L Mills, Kenneth Donaldson, David E Newby, Paul HB Fokkens and Flemming R Cassee
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:8
  23. Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, t...

    Authors: Ingeborg M Kooter, A John F Boere, Paul HB Fokkens, Daan LAC Leseman, Jan AMA Dormans and Flemming R Cassee
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:7
  24. Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include th...

    Authors: Patti C Zeidler-Erdely, William J Calhoun, Bill T Ameredes, Melissa P Clark, Gregory J Deye, Paul Baron, William Jones, Terri Blake and Vincent Castranova
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:5
  25. Particulate air pollution has been associated with lung and cardiovascular disease, for which lung inflammation may be a driving mechanism. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been s...

    Authors: Anne T Saber, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Jette Bornholdt, Sanna L Kjær, Marianne Dybdahl, Lotte Risom, Steffen Loft, Ulla Vogel and Håkan Wallin
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:4
  26. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute lung toxicity in rats of intratracheally instilled TiO2 particles that have been substantially encapsulated with pyrogenically deposited, amorphous silica. Groups o...

    Authors: DB Warheit, TR Webb and KL Reed
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:3
  27. Silicosis features foci of inflammation where macrophages and lymphocytes precede and accompany fibroblast proliferation, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and increased deposition of connective tissue matrix m...

    Authors: Gerald S Davis, Linda M Pfeiffer, David R Hemenway and Mercedes Rincon
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:2
  28. Exposure to ambient particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Particle characteristics such as size, surface area and chemistry seem to influence the negative effects of p...

    Authors: Anette Kocbach, Yanjun Li, Karl E Yttri, Flemming R Cassee, Per E Schwarze and Ellen Namork
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2006 3:1
  29. Alveolar macrophages are a key cell in dealing with particles deposited in the lungs and in determining the subsequent response to that particle exposure. Nanoparticles are considered a potential threat to the...

    Authors: Peter G Barlow, Anna Clouter-Baker, Ken Donaldson, Janis MacCallum and Vicki Stone
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:11
  30. This review considers the molecular toxicology of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNP) following inhalation exposure. CDNP originate from a number of sources and in this review we consider diesel soot, weld...

    Authors: Ken Donaldson, Lang Tran, Luis Albert Jimenez, Rodger Duffin, David E Newby, Nicholas Mills, William MacNee and Vicki Stone
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:10
  31. Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster l...

    Authors: Elke Dopp, Santosh Yadav, Furquan Ahmad Ansari, Kunal Bhattacharya, Ursula von Recklinghausen, Ursula Rauen, Klaus Rödelsperger, Behnaz Shokouhi, Stefan Geh and Qamar Rahman
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:9
  32. The rapid proliferation of many different engineered nanomaterials (defined as materials designed and produced to have structural features with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less) presents a dile...

    Authors: Günter Oberdörster, Andrew Maynard, Ken Donaldson, Vincent Castranova, Julie Fitzpatrick, Kevin Ausman, Janet Carter, Barbara Karn, Wolfgang Kreyling, David Lai, Stephen Olin, Nancy Monteiro-Riviere, David Warheit and Hong Yang
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:8
  33. Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon ...

    Authors: Winfried Möller, David M Brown, Wolfgang G Kreyling and Vicki Stone
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:7
  34. The burning of biomass in the developing world for heating and cooking results in high indoor particle concentrations. Long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased ...

    Authors: Ian S Mudway, Sean T Duggan, Chandra Venkataraman, Gazala Habib, Frank J Kelly and Jonathan Grigg
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:6
  35. Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to w...

    Authors: John W Cherrie, Matthew Tindall and Hilary Cowie
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:5
  36. Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed he...

    Authors: Ragna B Hetland, Flemming R Cassee, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Erik Dybing and Per E Schwarze
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:4
  37. Translocation of ultrafine particles (UFP) into the blood that returns from the lungs to the heart has been forwarded as a mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular effects. The objective of this study was...

    Authors: James J Meiring, Paul JA Borm, Karim Bagate, Manuela Semmler, Jürgen Seitz, Shinji Takenaka and Wolfgang G Kreyling
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:3
  38. This study was performed within the scope of two multi-center European Commission-funded projects (HEPMEAP and PAMCHAR) concerning source-composition-toxicity relationship for particulate matter (PM) sampled i...

    Authors: Miriam E Gerlofs-Nijland, A John F Boere, Daan LAC Leseman, Jan AMA Dormans, Thomas Sandström, Raimo O Salonen, Leendert van Bree and Flemming R Cassee
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:2
  39. It is estimated that over 80% of respirable particulate matter (PM10) in cities comes from road transport and that tire and brake wear are responsible for the 3–7% emission of it. Data on the indicators of enviro...

    Authors: Maurizio Gualtieri, Manuela Andrioletti, Paride Mantecca, Claudio Vismara and Marina Camatini
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005 2:1
  40. Respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, and asthma have been reported in workers exposed to wood dust in a number of epidemiological studies. The underlying pathomechanisms, however, are not well underst...

    Authors: Huayan Long, Tingming Shi, Paul J Borm, Juha Määttä, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kai Savolainen and Fritz Krombach
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2004 1:3
  41. Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollutants (PM2.5) affects heart rate variability parameters, and levels of serum proteins associated with inflammation, hemostasis and thrombosis. This study investigated ...

    Authors: Michael Riediker, Robert B Devlin, Thomas R Griggs, Margaret C Herbst, Philip A Bromberg, Ronald W Williams and Wayne E Cascio
    Citation: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2004 1:2

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