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Table 1 Characteristics of mother-newborn pairs ( n= 240)

From: Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life

Characteristics Mean ± SD or range and number (%)
Maternal
  Age, y 29.1 (18–42)
  Pre-gestational BMI, kg/m2 24.4 ± 4.5
  Net weight gain, kg 14.6 ± 6.4
  Maternal education
   Low 30 (12.5%)
   Middle 84 (35.0%)
   High 126 (52.5%)
  Smoking  
   Never-smoker 162 (67.6%)
   Past-smoker 39 (16.2%)
   Smoker 39 (16.2%)
  Acetaminophen  
   No 136 (56.7%)
   Yes 104 (43.3%)
  Alcohola  
   No 194 (82.5%)
   Yes 41 (17.5%)
  Parity  
   1 128 (53.3%)
   2 88 (36.7%)
   ≥ 3 24 (10.0%)
  Apparent temperature, °C  
   Trimester 1 9.4 ± 6.0
   Trimester 2 8.3 ± 6.2
   Trimester 3 8.6 ± 5.9
Newborn  
  Newborn’s gender  
   Male 110 (45.8%)
   Female 130 (54.2%)
  Ethnicityb  
   European 206 (86.5%)
   Non-European 32 (13.5%)
  Gestational age, w 39.2 (35–42)
  Seasonc  
   Fall 56 (23.3%)
   Winter 60 (25.0%)
   Spring 51 (21.3%)
   Summer 73 (30.4%)
  Apgar score after 5 min  
   7 2 (0.8%)
   8 11 (4.6%)
   9 74 (30.8%)
   10 153 (63.8%)
  Birth weight, g 3400.8 ± 422.3
  Birth length, cm 50.2 ± 1.9
  Placental global DNA methylation, % 4.6 ± 0.4
  1. aData available for 235 and b238 subjects.
  2. cSeason determined for date of conception.