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Table 8 Protein concentration and enzyme activities in BALF after exposure to graphene

From: Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black

  Study day 7 Study day 28
Concentration [mg/m3] 0.5 2.5 10 0.5 2.5 10
Total Protein 1.3 1.2 2.9 1.2 1.4* 1.8**
GGT 1.0 4.4 10.3** + + +
LDH 0.9 1.1 2.8 1.2 1.6* 2.2**
ALP 1.1 1.5* 3.2** 1.2 1.0 1.9**
NAG 1.0 1.2 1.8 0.8 1.0 1.1
  1. * Statistically significant, p < 0.05; ** statistically significant, p < 0.01.
  2. +: Increased compared to controls (activity below detection limit in controls).
  3. Differences are expressed as x-fold ratios compared to the concurrent control group.