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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of control and welder patients.

From: Role of metal oxide nanoparticles in histopathological changes observed in the lung of welders

  Controls Welders P value
  (n = 21) (n = 21)  
Mean age (years ± SD) 58.6 ± 10.8 58.5 ± 10.7 ns
Gender    
Female 6 (28.6%) 1 (4.8%) 0.038
Male 15 (71.4%) 20 (95.2%) ns
Tobacco smoking    
Smoking status    ns
  Current smokers 9 (43.0%) 6 (28.6%)  
  Former smokers 9 (43.0%) 12 (57.1%)  
  Never smokers 3 (14.0%) 3 (14.3%)  
Cumulative consumption (P-Y ± SD) 24.6 ± 29.0 22.2 ± 15.2 ns
Age at onset (years ± SD) 16.8 ± 3.4 18.3 ± 4.2 ns
Age at cessation (years ± SD) 51.6 ± 14.0 48.8 ± 11.2 ns
Duration (years ± SD) 32.6 ± 16.7 33.7 ± 10.3 ns
Duration since cessation (years ± SD) 5.7 ± 9.3 8.2 ± 10.4 ns
Welding fumes exposure    -
Positive occupational questionnaire 0 21
Age at onset (years ± SD) - 19.9 ± 7.6
Age at cessation (years ± SD) - 48.2 ± 9.9
Duration (years ± SD) - 27.0 ± 9.2
Duration since cessation (years ± SD) - 9.2 ± 10.4
  1. ns: not significant; Max: maximum; Min: minimum; P-Y: packs-years; SD: standard deviation.