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Table 5 Symptom questionnaire.

From: Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

Symptoms assessed by visual analogue scale (0 – 100)
  Without mask With mask P
  Before walk After walk 24 hours after walk Before walk After walk 24 hours after walk  
Headache 4.00 ± 14.13 2.53 ± 5.55 1.13 ± 2.26 3.47 ± 12.06 0.73 ± 1.03 1.13 ± 2.10 n/s
Dizziness 0.40 ± 0.91 1.07 ± 2.22 0.67 ± 1.35 0.47 ± 0.99 0.80 ± 1.57 0.47 ± 0.92 n/s
Tiredness 1.40 ± 4.12 8.47 ± 12.14 9.60 ± 14.78 2.07 ± 5.35 7.40 ± 9.37 2.13 ± 4.10 n/s
Sickness 0.40 ± 0.91 1.07 ± 2.22 0.67 ± 1.35 0.53 ± 0.99 0.87 ± 1.51 0.80 ± 1.32 n/s
Cough 1.07 ± 3.08 1.80 ± 4.80 0.80 ± 1.61 0.73 ± 1.49 1.00 ± 1.73 0.60 ± 1.18 n/s
Difficulty in breathing 0.40 ± 0.91 0.67 ± 0.90 1.13 ± 2.83 3.87 ± 9.23 3.80 ± 8.10 1.60 ± 3.70 <0.05
Irritation of the eyes 1.00 ± 3.09 1.40 ± 3.60 1.13 ± 2.83 1.00 ± 2.59 1.67 ± 3.27 0.87 ± 1.69 n/s
Irritation of the throat 1.00 ± 2.83 1.47 ± 4.07 1.73 ± 4.56 0.73 ± 1.87 1.07 ± 2.63 1.40 ± 2.77 n/s
Irritation of the nose 1.00 ± 2.56 1.53 ± 3.78 1.27 ± 3.58 0.67 ± 1.23 1.07 ± 1.91 0.67 ± 1.35 n/s
Unpleasant smell 0.40 ± 0.74 0.93 ± 1.22 1.00 ± 1.69 0.67 ± 1.23 0.60 ± 0.91 0.80 ± 1.15 n/s
Bad taste 0.53 ± 1.13 0.73 ± 0.96 0.60 ± 0.83 0.40 ± 0.74 0.60 ± 1.18 0.93 ± 1.49 n/s
Difficulty walking   12.53 ± 13.24    15.13 ± 11.51   n/s
Perception of pollution   19.80 ± 18.37    11.60 ± 10.44   n/s
  1. All data expressed as mean ± standard deviation. "Difficulty walking" and "Perception of pollution" tested using paired Student's t-tests. All other variables tested using 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures including time and mask intervention as variables. P value shown is the effect of the mask intervention.