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Table 1 Exposure characteristics of the present study during European Transient Cycle urban conditions compared to earlier studies [12, 14] during idling engine conditions.

From: Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

  ETC urban
present study
Idling
previous study
Exposure campaigns   
Diesel engine Volvo TD40, 4.0 L, four cylinders Volvo TD45, 4.5 L four cylinders
Diesel fuel Diesel class I Diesel class III
PM10 mass concentration (filter), μg/m3 254 ± 36 330 ± 12 (3)
PM10 mass concentration (TEOM), μg/m3 228 ± 19 -
NOx, ppm 7.5 ± 0.3 2.8 ± <0.1 (3)
NO2, ppm 0.9 ± 0.1 0.6 ± <0.1 (3)
NO, ppm 6.6 ± 0.3 2.2 ± <0.1 (3)
Total hydrocarbons (THC), ppm 1.2 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 (3)
Complementary measurements (1)   
Particle number concentration, #/cm3 1.2 × 105 9.5 × 105 (4)
Particle count median size (CMDmobility), nm 129 55 (4)
Particle mass median size (MMDaerodynamic) nm 116 199 (4)
Organic carbon fraction (OC/TC(2)), % 12 94.5 (4)
Elemental carbon fraction (EC/TC(2)), % 88 5.5 (4)
Total PAH concentration, μg/m3 0.96 3.5 (4)
Semi-volatile PAH concentration, μg/m3 0.69 3.4 (4)
PM-associated PAH concentration, μg/m3 0.27 0.16 (4)
  1. (1) Particle number and PAH concentrations normalized to a PM mass concentration of 300 μg/m3 to enable a comparison between ETC and idling conditions.
  2. (2) TC = Total carbon content in PM mass
  3. (3) Exposure protocol data from a previously reported study [14]
  4. (4) Un-published DEP characteristics data associated with the exposure conditions during the previously reported studies [12, 14]
  5. For the exposure campaign data, mean values are given mean ± std.dev.