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Table 5 Physicochemical properties of control fibres and CNT samples

From: Durability and inflammogenic impact of carbon nanotubes compared with asbestos fibres

Sample Name Description Diameter as supplied by manufacturer (nm, mean(SE) Length as supplied by manufacturer μ(m) Endotoxin1 (pg ml-1) Surface groups (atomic ratio (X/C)) Soluble metals (μg g-1) Free radical generation Morphology (SEM, TEM, Light Microscopy)
X607 Glass fibres NA NA ND N/A Li-0.41; Be-0.02; Al-3502; V-1.07; Cr-4.05; Mn-29.6; Fe-3142; Co-0.08; Ni-2.62; Cu-0.72; Zn-7.09; As-0.12; Sr-48.4; Mo-0.25; Ag- < 0.01; Cd-0.02; Sb-0.01; Pb-0.43; U-0.03 None Dispersed rod-like glass fibres.
LFA Amosite asbestos NA NA ND N/A Li-0.15; Be-0.15; Al-463; V-1.62; Cr-4.45; Mn-622; Fe-~32003; Co-0.45; Ni-2.67; Cu-2.96; Zn-2.9; As-0.07; Sr-29.2; Mo-0.45; Ag- < 0.03; Cd-0.02; Sb- < 0.04; Pb-0.79; U-0.04 None Dispersed rod-like amphibole asbestos.
LFC Chrysotile asbestos NA NA ND N/A Li- < 0.14; Be-0.01; Al-137; V-1.29; Cr-32.3; Mn-83.1; Fe-1220; Co-5.54; Ni-140; Cu-0.77; Zn-10.9; As- < 0.11; Sr-2.26; Mo-0.08; Ag- < 0.08; Cd-0.04; Sb- < 0.09; Pb-0.46; U-0.02 None Dispersed fibrous-looking chrysotile asbestos.
CNT SW Single-walled 1-2 0.5-2 ND C-1.0000; O-0.0105; Si-0.0004; Fe-ND; Cl-0.0005; S-0.0002; Co-0.0007; Ni-0.0004 Li- < 0.04; Be- < 0.003; Al-6.2; V-0.34; Cr-2.01; Mn-15.7; Fe-185; Co-442; Ni-47.4; Cu-1.13; Zn-2.9; As-0.23; Sr-2.72; Mo-144; Ag-0.03; Cd-0.1; Sb- < 0.03; Pb-0.98; U-0.04 None Bundles of tightly agglomerated SWNTs in which individual NTs cannot be seen
CNT SPIN Multi-walled 8-10 200-300 ND C-1.0000; O-0.0013; Si-0.0007; Fe-0.007; Cl-ND; S-ND; Co-0.0002; Ni-0.0002 Li- < 0.02; Be- < 0.001; Al-0.3; V-0.01; Cr-0.07; Mn-0.02; Fe-50.1; Co- < 0.003; Ni-0.46; Cu-0.16; Zn-0.95; As-0.12; Sr-48.4; Mo-0.25; Ag- < 0.01; Cd-0.02; Sb-0.01; Pb-0.43; U-0.001 None Agglomerated sheets of very long fibres with a hair-like appearance.
CNT LONG1 Multi-walled 40-50 Mean 13 ND C-1.0000; O-0.0046; Si-0.0012; Fe-ND; Cl-0.0001; S-0.0002; Co-0.0001; Ni-0.0002 Li- < 0.09; Be- < 0.007; Al-0.9; V-0.01; Cr-0.15; Mn-0.09; Fe-15.6; Co- < 0.01; Ni-0.2; Cu-0.06; Zn-2.5; As- < 0.07; Sr-0.84; Mo-0.01; Ag- < 0.05; Cd- < 0.02; Sb- < 0.06; Pb-0.03; U-0.01 None Bundled or individual MWNTs of variable length, many in the 10 20(m range or longer. Many very short fibres often decorate the longer fibres.
CNT TANG2 Multi-walled 15 ± 5 5-20 ND C-1.0000; O-0.0038; Si-0.0009; Fe-ND; Cl-ND; S-0.0005; Co-0.0007; Ni-0.0003 Li- < 0.08; Be- < 0.006; Al-41.6; V- < 0.01; Cr-0.03; Mn-0.05; Fe-606; Co-0.04; Ni-0.44; Cu-1.07; Zn-9.5; As- < 0.07; Sr-0.3; Mo-655; Ag- < 0.05; Cd-0.04; Sb- < 0.06; Pb-0.26; U- < 0.006 None Bundles of intermediate-length MWNTs. Often stellate in form with longer fibres protruding from the central tangled agglomerate, a large proportion of which are in respirable size range < 5 (m.
  1. Note: Lengths and widths as determined by authors can be found in Table 3
  2. NA: Not available
  3. ND: Not detected
  4. N/A: Not applicable
  5. 1Endotoxin detection limit < 10 pg ml-1
  6. 2Analysed by ICP-AES
  7. 3Value over range, and is an estimate only