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Figure 7 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 7

From: Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms

Figure 7

Particle-dependent release of TNF-α and IL-1β. (A) ufTiO2 and DQ12 particles trigger the release of TNF-α by AM in a concentration- dependent manner. (B) Only DQ12 particles cause the release of IL-1β by AM at the highest concentrations. Data are presented as mean ± SEM of three independent experiments, with * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001 vs. medium control (ANOVA with LSD post-hoc comparison).

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