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Table 5 Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis at 1 or 35 days after inhalation exposure to BaSO 4 NPs

From: Biokinetics and effects of barium sulfate nanoparticles

  4-week exposure 13-week exposure
  Control BaSO4 Control BaSO4
BaSO4 lung burden (mg)   0.84 ± 0.18   1.73 ± 0.85
Total cells (million)     
1 day 0.649 ± 0.20 0.562 ± 0.12 0.610 ± 0.20 0.836 ± 0.15*
35 days 0.580 ± 0.11 0.454 ± 0.12 ND ND
Neutrophils (million)     
1 day 0.007 ± 0.003 0.021 ± 0.010* 0.016 ± 0.006 0.204 ± 0.175*
35 days 0.019 ± 0.008 0.032 ± 0.024 ND ND
Total protein (mg/L)     
1 day 60 ± 4 77 ± 13* 52 ± 10 64 ± 13
35 days 81 ± 23 59 ± 13 ND ND
GGT (nkat/L)     
1 day 37 ± 17 40 ± 10 41 ± 7 64 ± 13*
35 days 42 ± 12 37 ± 12 ND ND
ALP (μkat/L)     
1 day 0.83 ± 0.16 0.83 ± 0.20 0.51 ± 0.10 0.87 ± 0.21*
35 days 0.70 ± 0.09 0.70 ± 0.12 ND ND
MCP-1 (pg/ml)     
1 day 14.0 ± 0.0 54.7 ± 14.3* 24.2 ± 8.4 176.7 ± 126.1*#
35 days 17.3 ± 2.6 14.7 ± 1.7 ND ND
CINC-1/IL-8 (pg/ml)     
1 day 104.2 ± 26.7 158.7 ± 22.4* 93.7 ± 18.7 223.8 ± 125.7*
35 days 158.8 ± 38.1 167.6 ± 41.1 ND ND
  1. Data are mean ± SD, n = 5/group. Control rats were exposed to filtered air.
  2. ND, not determined.
  3. *p ≤0.05, BaSO4-exposed vs. control; #p ≤0.05, 13-week vs. 4-week exposure.
  4. Neutrophils counts were significantly much lower compared to data from rats instilled with 1.4 mg BaSO4 (5 mg/kg BaSO4) (Table 4).