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Table 7 Comparison of initial cellular and molecular events after lung particle exposure in different experimental animals leading to pre-tumour conditions: DNA damage, p53 activation and proliferation

From: Translational toxicology in setting occupational exposure limits for dusts and hazard classification – a critical evaluation of a recent approach to translate dust overload findings from rats to humans

Phase # Parameter Animals compared; model used comparison Source
Phase 1 PMN BALF; rat mouse hamster R >> > M, H Carter and Driscoll [156]
Carter et al. [157]
Phase 1 PMN BALF; rat, hamster R >> > H Seiler et al. [158]
Phase 1 MIP2, TNF alpha BALF AM; rat mouse, hamster R >> > H, M Carter and Driscoll [156]
Carter et al. [157]
Phase 2 IL-10 Rat, mouse hamster R, M < << H Carter et al. [157]
Phase 2 GSH level in BALF Rat vs. hamster R >> > H Seiler et al. [158] (it 90d)
Phase 3 Repair: Indirect hint by in vitro studies of the ionizing radiation induced DNA damage (Human vs murine cells),with regard to the species-specific reaction to particles differences in repair capacities are not investigated Behrens et al. [159]
Phase 4 8-oxogua Tissue; rat vs. hamster R >> > H Seiler et al. [158]
Phase 4 P53 Mutation in tissue Tissue; rat vs. hamster R > H Seiler et al. [158]
Phase 4 proliferation Tissue; rat vs. hamster R >> > H Seiler et al. [158]
Carter and Driscoll [156]
  1. Abbr.: rat, R; mouse, M; hamster, H; reduced glutathione, GSH; superoxide dismutase, SOD.