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Table 3 Associations between personal measurements of 5-minute average particle number concentrations and 5-minute ECG-measures

From: Elevated particle number concentrations induce immediate changes in heart rate variability: a panel study in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes

  concurrent 0 - 4 min 5 - 9 min 10 - 14 min
  %-change 95% CI %-change 95% CI %-change 95% CI %-change 95% CI
HR −0.06 −0.18; 0.07 0.23** 0.11; 0.36 0.16* 0.04; 0.28 −0.01 −0.13; 0.11
SDNN −0.56* −1.02; −0.09 0.36 −0.11; 0.83 0.02 −0.45; 0.48 −0.15 −0.62; 0.32
RMSSD −0.13 −0.74; 0.48 0.08 −0.54; 0.70 0.14 −0.48; 0.77 −0.16 −0.77; 0.46
  1. Analyses considered concurrent and up to 15-minutes delayed exposures and adjusted for trend, meteorology and time of day. Effect estimates are shown for an increase of 16,000 particles cm−3.
  2. *p-value <0.05, **p-value <0.01, CI: confidence interval, HR: heart rate, RMSSD: root mean square of successive differences, SDNN: standard deviation of NN intervals.