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Table 1 Physicochemical parameters of the AuNP before and after ALICE exposure

From: Translocation of gold nanoparticles across the lung epithelial tissue barrier: Combining in vitro and in silico methods to substitute in vivo experiments

  AuNP diametera 2 nm 7 nm 18 nm 46 nm 80 nm
In suspension before ALICE exposure UV–Vis: Maximum absorption curveb [nm] No LSPRh band 512 521 529 549
UV–Vis: Diameterc [nm] 1-2 6-7 16-18 46 80
DLS: Hydrodynamic diameter [nm] n.d.i n.d.i 20.2 52.4 80.4
DLS: Polydispersity [%] n.d.i n.d.i 6.2 9.7 13.1
Surface functionalization Citrate-THPCj Citrate Citrate Citrate Citrate
ζ-potentiald [mV] −12.3 ± 0.9 −50.9 ± 1.3 −31.7 ± 1.5 −32.4 ± 1.5 −27.5 ± 2.3
After ALICE exposure TEM: Particle diametere [nm] 2.5 ± 1.2k 6.5 ± 2.3 19.6 ± 4.2 49.1 ± 10.7 85.5 ± 14.2
TEM: Circularityf [−] 0.46 ± 0.13 0.60 ± 0.20 0.77 ± 0.13 0.88 ± 0.05 0.86 ± 0.10
Fraction of gold below 30 kDa in the basolateral mediumg [%] 8.80 ± 0.34 0.52 ± 0.16 <LODl <LODl <LODl
  1. aAuNPs were ordered by size according to the UV–Vis measurements
  2. bthe complete UV–Vis spectrum can be found in Additional file 1 (Figure S1)
  3. cdetermined as described in Haiss et al. [72] (see Methods)
  4. daverage zeta potential ± standard deviation (SD)
  5. eaverage diameter ± SD as measured by TEM (n = 161 to 259). Histograms showing the complete particle size distribution can be found in Additional file 1 (Figure S2)
  6. f0 corresponds to an infinitely elongated polygon; 1 corresponds to a perfect circle
  7. gdetermined with an A529 CML 24 h after exposure to 100 ng/cm2 AuNP. Mean fraction ± SD (n = 3)
  8. hLSPR: localized surface plasmon resonance
  9. inot detected (size below the LOD of the instrument)
  10. jTHPC: tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride
  11. kleft tail of the size distribution partly below the limit of detection (<0.9 nm). Hence, mean diameter was probably slightly overestimated; see also Additional file 1
  12. lbelow the limit of detection (LOD depends on size. Approximate LODs are 1.4 % for 18 nm, 1.2 % for 46 nm, 2.3 % for 80 nm)