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Fig. 3 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 3

From: Differential bioreactivity of neutral, cationic and anionic polystyrene nanoparticles with cells from the human alveolar compartment: robust response of alveolar type 1 epithelial cells

Fig. 3

Effect of polystyrene nanoparticles on total cellular glutathione and TT1 cellular oxidised glutathione: reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG: GSH) at 1 and 4 h exposure. GSSG:GSH ratio following exposure to 50 nm (a, b) and 100 nm (d, e) NPs for 1 (a, d) and 4 h (b, e) respectively. Total GSH following exposure to 50 nm (c) and 100 nm (f) for 4 h with and without antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 10 mM). ANPs caused the most significant increases in GSSG:GSH ratio, regardless of particle size. All three NPs caused a reduction in total cellular GSH, though this was most marked following ANP exposure (c, f). NAC treatment significantly prevented this effect (c, f). *p < 0.05, p** < 0.001; n = 3 replicates

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