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Table 1 Particulate matter effects on gene expression of angiotensin and bradykinin systems in the lungs. Semi-quantitative expression results of angiotensin-receptor type-2 (At2r), bradykinin receptor type-1 (B1r) and type-2 (B2r), and kallikrein (Klk-1) enzyme after acute and subchronic exposures

From: Acute and subchronic exposure to air particulate matter induces expression of angiotensin and bradykinin-related genes in the lungs and heart: Angiotensin-II type-I receptor as a molecular target of particulate matter exposure

Acute exposure
Group FA CP FP UFP
Gene
At2r 1 1.3 1.85 1.32
(0.6-1.4) (0.61-2.17) (1.1-2.5) (0.5-1.9)
B1r 1 1.05 1.3 1.08
(0.9-1.1) (0.8-1.2) (1.01-2) (0.9-1.1)
B2r 1.1 1.1 2 1.4
(0.6-1.2) (0.9-1.77) (0.9-3.1) (1.4-1.7)
Klk-1 1 1.12 1.88 * 1.43 *
(0.94-1.1) (0.76-1.3) (1.4-2) (1.1-2.35)
Subchronic exposure
Group FA CP FP UFP
Gene
At2r 1 0.73 0.85 0.82
(0.8-1.15) (0.7-1.1) (0.5-1.1) (0.6-1.1)
B1r 1 0.95 1. 1
(0.9-1.2) (0.9- 1.03) (0.94-1.5) (0.93-1.1)
B2r 1 1.03 1.6 1
(0.9-1.2) (1-1.2) (1.15-4.2) (0.93-1.1)
Klk-1 1 0.84 1.78 0.92
(0.8-1.2) (0.8-1.1) (0.7-2.7) (0.9-1.4)
  1. Acute exposure was defined as 5 h per day for 3 days
  2. Subchronic exposure was defined as 5 h per day, 4 days per week, for 8 weeks
  3. All results were corrected using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a housekeeping gene
  4. AF: Air filtered
  5. CP: Coarse particulate
  6. FP: Fine particulate
  7. UFP: Ultrafine particulate
  8. Data are showed as median and range
  9. * Indicates significantly different from FA