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Table 2 Particulate matter effects on gene expression of angiotensin and bradykinin systems in the heart. Semi-quantitative expression results for angiotensin-receptor type-2 (At2r), Bradykinin receptor type-1 (B1r) and kallikrein (Klk-1) enzyme after acute and subchronic exposures

From: Acute and subchronic exposure to air particulate matter induces expression of angiotensin and bradykinin-related genes in the lungs and heart: Angiotensin-II type-I receptor as a molecular target of particulate matter exposure

Acute exposure
Group FA CP FP UFP
Gene
At2r 1 1 1 1
(0.8-1.2) (1-1.1) (0.9-1.1) (0.5-1)
Ace 1 1.6 * 1.1 1.7 *
(0.9-1.1) (1.4-1.8) (0.9-1.3) (1.1-2.1)
B1r 1 1.7 * 2.2 * 1.9 *
(0.8-1.3) (1.4-2.2) (2.1-2.6) (1.3-2.4)
Klk-1 1 1.2 1.6 * 1.4 *
(0.8-1.2) (1-1.5) (1.4-1.9) (1.2-1.5)
Subchronic exposure
Group FA CP FP UFP
Gene
At2r 1 0.97 0.92 0.71 *
(0.96-1.03) (0.97-1.05) (0.72-0.9) (0.7-0.8)
Ace 1 1 1 0.9
(0.9-1.1) (0.9-1.1) (0.9-1.3) (0.8-1)
B1r Not determined
Klk-1 1 1.1 1.2 * 1.1
(0.9-1.1) (0.9-1.2) (1.19-1.22) (1-1.3)
  1. Acute exposure was defined as 5 h per day for 3 days
  2. Subchronic exposure was defined as 5 h per day, 4 days per week, during 8 weeks
  3. All results were corrected with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a housekeeping gene
  4. AF: Air filtered
  5. CP: Coarse particulate
  6. FP: Fine particulate
  7. UFP: Ultrafine particulate
  8. Data are showed as median and range
  9. * Indicates significantly different from FA