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Table 1 Comparative summary of data from experiments using I.T. instillation (in vivo), I.V. injection (in vivo) and cultured endothelial cells (in vitro)

From: Platelet activation independent of pulmonary inflammation contributes to diesel exhaust particulate-induced promotion of arterial thrombosis

    Particulate
   Time (hours) DEP CB DQ12
I.T. instillation Pulmonary cells 2 NSD ------ ------
(In vivo)   6 ↑↑ ↑↑
   24 NSD ------ ------
  Pulmonary IL-6 6 NSD
  Pulmonary TNFα 6 NSD NSD NSD
  Pulmonary CRP 6 NSD ↑↑ ↑↑
  Plasma IL-6 6 NSD NSD NSD
  Plasma TNFα 6 NSD NSD NSD
  Plasma CRP 6 NSD ↑↑ ↑↑
  Thrombosis 2 NSD ------ ------
   6 NSD NSD
   24 NSD ------ ------
  tPA:PAI-1 6 ↓↓ ↓↓ ↓↓
  PMA   ↑↑ NSD NSD
I.V. injection Pulmonary cells 2 NSD ------ ------
(In vivo)   6 NSD NSD ------
   24 NSD ------ ------
  Pulmonary IL-6 2 L.O.D L.O.D. ------
  Pulmonary TNFα 2 NSD NSD ------
  Pulmonary CRP 2 NSD NSD ------
  Plasma IL-6 2 NSD NSD ------
  Plasma TNFα 2 NSD NSD ------
  Plasma CRP 2 NSD ↑↑ ------
  Thrombosis 2 ------ ------
   6 NSD NSD ------
   24 NSD ------ ------
  tPA:PAI-1 6 ↓↓ ↓↓ ------
  PMA 24 NSD ------
Cultured HUVECs tPA transcripts Basal ------ ------
In vitro   Stimulated NSD ------ ------
  PAI-1 transcripts Basal NSD ------ ------
   Stimulated ------ ------
  tPA antigen 6 NSD ------ ------
   24 ↓↓ ------ ------
  PAI-1 activity 6 ↓↓ ------ ------
   24 ↓↓ ------ ------
  1. CB carbon black, CRP C-reactive protein, DEP diesel exhaust particles, DQ12 quartz particles, HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells, IL-6 interleukin 6, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor, PMA platelet monocyte aggregation, TNFα tumour necrosis factor-α, tPA tissue plasminogen activator
  2. NSD = no significant difference. ----- = not tested (note, DQ12 was not tested by iv injection or cultured endothelial cells as this particle is unlikely to cross from the lungs into the circulation due to its micrometre size)