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Fig. 10 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 10

From: Atomic layer deposition coating of carbon nanotubes with zinc oxide causes acute phase immune responses in human monocytes in vitro and in mice after pulmonary exposure

Fig. 10

Illustration of proposed mechanisms underlying the acute phase immune response to ZnO-coated MWCNTs (Z-MWCNTs) in human THP-1 monocytes in vitro and after delivery to the lungs of mice in vivo by oropharyngeal aspiration. Uncoated MWCNTs (U-MWCNTs) are subjected to atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating with ZnO to yield Z-MWCNTs. Sonication results in breakage of Z-MWCNTs and the ZnO coating also undergoes partial dissolution to release Zn+2 ions in aqueous media. Unlike U-MWCNTs, Z-MWCNTs are not taken up by phagocytic monocytes or macrophages in vitro or in vivo. Z-MWCNTs cause epithelial cell growth arrest and increases in CXCL10, a monocyte chemoattractant, as well as increases in IL-6 that mediates systemic acute phase responses

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