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Fig. 1 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 1

From: Air-liquid interface exposure to aerosols of poorly soluble nanomaterials induces different biological activation levels compared to exposure to suspensions

Fig. 1

In vitro comparisons between ALI and submerged exposure. Alveolar cells in monoculture or in co-culture were cultured in inserts or in plates and exposed at the ALI to aerosols or in submerged conditions to suspensions of four poorly soluble NMs. Final doses were reached within 3 h in inserts and 24 h in plates. Total deposited doses were measured at the ALI or estimated in submerged conditions and cell biological activity was assessed after 24 h of exposure to the NMs, performing cell viability, stress oxidative and inflammation assays. Comparisons were performed between the biological activation levels determined after statistical analysis

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