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Fig. 4 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 4

From: Combined exposure of diesel exhaust particles and respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash causes a (pro-)inflammatory response in an in vitro multicellular epithelial tissue barrier model

Fig. 4

Interaction of volcanic ash with the triple cell co-culture. Scanning electron micrographs of the triple cell co-culture membrane exposed to 0.26 ± 0.09 μg/cm2 of single exposure to volcanic ash (SEVA), showing direct interaction of VA particles with the different cell types. a and b (inset of (a)) show a representative interaction of the human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with VA, which appears to be engulfed by the MDM (b). Images (c) and d (inset of (c)) show a representative interaction of the human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) with the VA particles, which are interacting with the pseudopodia of the MDDC (d; indicated with white arrows). Images were collected at 3 kV and 10 mm working distance. Scale bars are 20 μm (a), 2 μm (b), 50 μm (c) and 20 μm (d)

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