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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Extracellular vesicle-packaged miRNA release after short-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with increased coagulation

Characteristic Total population Discovery subset Validation subset P
N = 1630 n = 883 n = 747
Sex
 Males 438 (26.9%) 237 (26.8%) 201 (26.9%) 0.9756
 Females 1192 (73.1%) 646 (73.2%) 546 (73.1%)
Age, years (mean ± SD) 52.4 ± 13.8 51.5 ± 13.5 53.5 ± 14.1 0.0050
BMI*, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 33.6 ± 5.4 33.7 ± 5.6 33.5 ± 5.3 0.4758
BMI* categorical
 Overweight (25–30 kg/m2) 438 (26.9%) 238 (27.0%) 200 (26.8%) 0.7290
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2) 1191 (73.0%) 645 (73.0%) 546 (73.1%)
 Missing 1 (0.1%) _ 1 (0.1%)
Smoking status
 Never smoker 794 (48.7%) 447 (50.6%) 347 (46.5%) 0.3425
 Former smoker 575 (35.3%) 303 (34.3%) 272 (36.4%)
 Current smoker 258 (15.8%) 131 (14.8%) 127 (17%)
 Missing 3 (0.2%) 2 (0.2%) 1 (0.1%)
Year of enrollment
 2010 90 (5.5%) 90 (10.2%) _ _
 2011 409 (25.1%) 409 (46.3%) _
 2012 384 (23.6%) 384 (43.5%) _
 2013 304 (18.7%) _ 304 (40.7%)
 2014 324 (19.9%) _ 324 (43.4%)
 2015 119 (7.3%) _ 119 (15.9%)
Season of enrollment
 Winter 487 (29.9%) 223 (25.3%) 264 (35.3%) < 0.0001
 Spring 430 (26.4%) 227 (25.7%) 203 (27.2%)
 Summer 213 (13.1%) 106 (12%) 107 (14.3%)
 Autumn 500 (30.7%) 327 (37%) 173 (23.2%)
Living area
 City of Milan 975 (59.8%) 493 (55.8%) 482 (64.5%) 0.0004
 Outside Milan 655 (40.2%) 390 (44.2%) 265 (35.5%)
Fibrinogen, mg/dl (median [Q1-Q3]) 325 [290–366] 328 [295–368] 322 [281–365] 0.0056
  1. *BMI = Body mass index