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Table 3 Papers arising from the RAPTES series of studies

From: Health effects of particulate matter air pollution in underground railway systems – a critical review of the evidence

First Author Year (sampling/exposure) Underground [Airborne PM] (μg/m3 unless stated) Underground PM Composition Comparator PM Model Exposure Conditions Sample Size Findings
Steenhof [78] 2011 (June 2007–February 2008) Mainline underground station, Europe (same as [8, 60]) PM10–2.5 = 58; PM2.5–0.18 = 38; PM0.18 = 83; PNC = 39,000/cm2 Fe = 30.5%; Cu = 2.7%; Zn = 1.2% Urban background; continuous traffic; stop-go traffic; truck traffic; farm; steelworks; harbour RAW 264.7 macrophages 6.25–100 μg/ml (3.68–58.8 μg/cm2), 16 h N/A All sizes of underground PM were most potent in reducing cell viability. Coarse underground PM most potent inducer of TNFα and MIP-2 release, otherwise traffic PM generally more pro-inflammatory.
Strak [80] 2012 (March–October 2009) PM10 = 394; PM2.5 = 140;
PM10–2.5 = 252
Fe = 154 μg/m3; Cu = 7 μg/m3; Ni = 68 ng/m3; V = 25 ng/m3 Urban background, continuous traffic, stop-go traffic, farm In vivo human 5 h 31 FENO was associated with PM Fe, V, Cu, and water soluble Ni, and loss of FVC and FEV1 with Fe, Cu, and water soluble Ni. No association with PM10 mass or OP.
Steenhof [81] 2013 (March–October 2009) OC, NO2, and endotoxin associated with nasal lavage IL-6 and IL-8. Lactoferrin associated with underground PM metal.
Strak [82] 2013 (March–October 2009) Plasma CRP, fibrinogen, VWF, tPA-PAI-1, platelet count associated with PM OC, NO3, SO42−.
Strak [83] 2013 (March–October 2009) Ex vivo blood thrombin generation associated with PM NO3 and SO42−.
Steenhof [84] 2014 (March–October 2009) Increase in circulating monocytes associated with PM10 and PM2.5 mass, EC, and PM OP, mainly driven by atypical characteristics of underground PM.