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Fig. 2 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 2

From: Cellular Toxicity and Immunological Effects of Carbon-based Nanomaterials

Fig. 2

The mechanisms by which carbon-based nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity of macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to carbon nanomaterials triggers a cascade of cellular and molecular events, such as ROS generation and lysosome damage, which serve as the mechanisms underlying carbon nanomaterial-induced cell death, including necrosis, apoptosis and pyroptosis. Carbon nanomaterials cause the mitochondrial dependent apoptotic cascades through ROS-activated MAPKs pathway. ROS could activate several transcription factors, such as NF-κB that regulates the inflammatory response. Carbon nanomaterials induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), resulting in the translocation of cathepsins to the cytoplasm. ROS and LMP were reciprocal causation generating an amplification loop. LMP could potentially cause autophagy dysfunction. And inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis was initiated characterized by cleavage of caspase 1 and downstream IL-1β release

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