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Table 2 Outcome levels for electric and diesel scenarios and percent changes in biomarker levels

From: Health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust in diesel-powered trains

Biomarker Electric (mean ± SD) Diesel (mean ± SD) % Change (95% CI) p-value
Urinary excretion 1-OHP (μmol/mol creatinine) 0.049 ± 0.083 0.027 ± 0.019 −12.2 (− 32.3; 14.0) 0.331
2-OHF (μmol/mol creatinine) 0.075 ± 0.067 0.070 ± 0.061 0.6 (− 17.3; 22.4) 0.952
1-NAPH (μmol/mol creatinine) 0.851 ± 0.603 0.671 ± 0.560 −20.0 (−44.3; 4.3) 0.107
2-NAPH (μmol/mol creatinine) 2.084 ± 2.272 1.861 ± 1.679 −0.4 (−20.7; 25.2) 0.975
Lung function FVC (L) 4.20 ± 1.24 4.18 ± 1.16 −2.3 (−4.7; 0.25) 0.077
FEV1 (L) 3.32 ± 0.96 3.24 ± 0.96 −3.6 (−5.5; −1.6) 0.0003***
FEV1/FVC (%) 79.1 ± 6.8 77.2 ± 9.2 −1.8 (− 3.8; 0.2) 0.073
PEF (L/s) 7.26 ± 2.13 7.15 ± 2.42 −5.6 (− 10.7; − 0.5) 0.031*
Cardiovascular function Ln.RHI 0.57 ± 0.25 0.55 ± 0.28 −1.4 (− 26.5; 23.7) 0.913
NIV 2.26 ± 1.06 2.21 ± 0.71 − 3.7 (− 34.6; 27.3) 0.817
pNN50 (%) 0.06 ± 0.08 6.54 ± 0.07 4.6 (− 13.8; 23.0) 0.626
RMSSD (ms) 41.84 ± 30.93 36.39 ± 19.02 − 3.5 (− 22.1; 19.7) 0.326
SDNN (ms) 48.16 ± 24.29 44.24 ± 16.76 −2.1 (− 14.9; 12.7) 0.773
LF (ms2) 160.2 ± 59.5 195.9 ± 78.8 16.5 (5.9; 27.0) 0.002**
HF (ms2) 153.6 ± 57.6 151.8 ± 67.5 2.0 (− 7.5; 11.5) 0.681
LF/HF 1.27 ± 0.83 1.70 ± 1.37 18.5 (−5.5; 48.6) 0.141
AI normalized to heart rate of 75 bpm (%) −8.26 ± 11.79 −6.26 ± 14.68 1.6 (−2.2; 5.5) 0.405
DP (mm Hg) 81.2 ± 11.4 82.3 ± 10.8 1.2 (−2.9; 5.2) 0.566
SP (mm Hg) 135.1 ± 16.1 134.4 ± 17.9 −1.0 (−4.9; 2.9) 0.630
DNA damage SB (lesions/106 bp) 0.12 ± 0.13 0.18 ± 0.13 46.3 (5.0; 100.9) 0.025*
Fpg-sensitive sites (lesions/106 bp) 0.62 ± 0.15 0.58 ± 0.12 −5.0 (−11.1; 1.1) 0.109
Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 (ng/mL) 35.04 ± 7.28 34.34 ± 6.88 −2.5 (−8.3; 3.7) 0.426
VCAM-1 (ng/mL) 134.2 ± 36.2 129.6 ± 35.8 −3.2 (−10.5; 4.7) 0.416
Acute phase proteins SAA (mg/L) 32.09 ± 41.51 36.46 ± 47.35 11.1 (−17.8; 50.2) 0.493
CRP (mg/L) 1.83 ± 2.29 1.90 ± 2.48 −12.3 (−47.5; 46.4) 0.615
  1. Percent change was estimated by mixed-effects model adjusted for age and sex, comparing diesel with electric scenarios
  2. CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation, 1-OHP 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-OHF 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-NAPH 1-naphthol, 2-NAPH 2-naphthol, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, PEF peak expiratory flow rate, Ln.RHI reactive hyperemia index with natural logarithmic transformation (the percent change was back transformed), NIV nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation, pNN50 proportion of successive NN intervals differing by more than 50 milliseconds divided by total number of NN intervals, RMSSD square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals, SDNN standard deviation of all NN intervals, LF low frequency component (0.04–0.15 Hz), HF high frequency component (0.15–0.4 Hz), AI augmentation index, DP diastolic blood pressure, SP systolic blood pressure, SB DNA strand breaks, ICAM-1 intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, SAA serum amyloid A, CRP C-reactive protein; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001