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Table 4 Estimates for associations between daily averages of exposure levels and biomarkers (91% CI)

From: Health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust in diesel-powered trains

Exposure markers FVC (L) FEV1 (L) FEV1/FVC PEF (L/s) LF (ms2) DNA SB (lesions/106 bp)a
UFP (NanoTracer) (#/cm3)
 Day 1 −0.7E−06 (−1.4E−06; −0.04E-06)* -0.7E-06 (− 1.2E-06; − 0.2E-06)** -0.6E-05 (− 1.7E-05; 0.5E-05) −2.2E− 06 (−4.3E− 06; − 0.08E− 06)* 2.2E-04 (0.5E-04; 3.9E-04)* 4.1E-06 (1.3E-06; 6.9E-06)**
 Day 2 -0.6E-06 (− 1.1E-06; − 0.02E-06)* -0.6E-06 (−0.9E-06; − 0.2E-06)** -0.8E-05 (−1.7E-05; 0.04E-05) − 1.1E− 06 (− 2.7E− 06; 0.6E-06) 1.3E-04 (0.03E-04; 2.6E-04)* 4.9E-06 (2.8E-06; 7.0E-06)***
 Day 3, sampling day -0.7E-06 (− 1.4E-06; 0.05E-06) -0.8E-06 (− 1.3E-06; − 0.3E-06)** −1.0E-05 (− 2.2E-05; 0.1E-05) −3.1E− 06 (−5.2E-06; − 0.9E-06)** 2.8E-04 (1.2E-04; 4.3E-04)*** 3.9E-06 (0.7E-06; 6.9E-06)*
UFP (DiscMini) (#/cm3)
 Day 1 -0.6E-06 (− 1.2E-06; 0.01E-06) −5.2E− 07 (− 9.2E-07;- 1.2E-07)* -0.5E-05 (− 1.5E-05; 0.5E-05) −1.9E− 06 (− 3.7E-06; − 0.1E-06)* 1.7E-04 (0.3E-04; 2.9E-04)* 3.9E-06 (1.6E-06; 6.1E-06)***
 Day 2 -0.4E-06 (−0.8E-06; 0.06E-06) −3.2E− 07 (− 5.5E-07; − 0.9E-07)** -0.4E-05 (− 0.9E-05; 0.2E-05) −1.2E− 06 (− 2.6E-06; 0.1E-06) 1.4E-04 (0.5E-04; 2.3E-04)** 2.7E-06 (1.0E-06; 4.4E-06)**
 Day 3, sampling day -0.5E-06 (− 1.0E-06; 0.02E-06) −5.2E− 07 (− 8.6E-07; − 1.8E-07)** -0.8E-05 (− 1.6E-05; 0.06E-05) − 2.3E-06 (− 3.8E-06; − 0.8E-06)** 1.5E-04 (0.4E-04; 2.5E-04)** 2.6E-06 (0.6E-06; 4.7E-06)*
BC (μg/m3)
 Day 1 −1.5E-02 (−2.8E-02; − 0.3E-02)* −1.4E-02 (− 2.2E-02; − 0.5E-02)** −1.2E-01 (− 3.3E-01; 0.9E-01) −5.4E-02 (− 9.1E-02; − 1.7E-02)** 4.5 (1.8; 7.2)** 4.3E-02 (− 1.2E-02; 9.8E-02)
 Day 2 −1.2E-02 (− 2.2E-02; − 0.1E-02)* −1.3E-02 (− 1.9E-02; − 0.5E-02)*** −1.6E-01 (− 3.3E-01; 0.1E-01) −3.1E− 02 (− 6.3E-02; 0.2E-02) 3.1 (0.7; 5.6)* 6.6E-02 (2.0E-02; 11.2E-02)**
 Day 3, sampling day -0.8E-02 (− 1.8E-02; 0.2E-02) −1.1E-02 (− 1.8E-02; − 0.4E-02)** −1.8E-01 (− 3.4E-01; − 0.2E-01)* −3.0E-02 (− 6.0E-02; 0.06E-02) 3.4 (1.3; 5.5)** 6.6E-02 (2.3E-02; 10.9E-02)**
  1. Estimated by mixed-effects model adjusted for age and sex. The values in the table are the beta-estimates of the linear associations (linear mixed model for each day and pollutant)
  2. UFP, ultrafine particles; BC, black carbon; FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; PEF, peak expiratory flow rate; LF, low frequency component; DNA SB, DNA strand breaks. The exposure data were collected during 3 days and biomarkers data assessed from sampling in the 3rd day of exposure. Day 1 corresponds to the first day in the trains, two days before sampling; day 2 corresponds to the second day in the trains, one day before sampling; and day 3 to the third day in the trains and the sampling day
  3. aSB was transformed with cubic root
  4. *,**,***, p < 0.05; < 0.01; < 0.001, respectively