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Table 1 Characterization of the CuO-containing ENMs from the original powders, adapted from Vassallo et al. [15]

From: Surface PEGylation suppresses pulmonary effects of CuO in allergen-induced lung inflammation

Test material (Supplier) Manufacturer’s information cMeasured primary particle size (nm) dMeasured hydrodynamic diameter in ultrapure water or Krebs saline (nm) eTotal measured copper concentration (mg l-1) fPercentage of nominal concentration (%) gMeasured copper fraction in coated CuO NPs hMetal dissolution rate in ultrapure water or Krebs saline (μg Cu h-1) iZeta potential in ultrapure water (mV)
aCuO NPs uncoated,
CAS 1317-38-0 (PlasmaChem GmbH, Lot YF1309121)
99% purity; diameter, 10 - 20 nm; bsurface area 42 ± 2 m2 g-1 12.00 ± 0.37 41 ± 28 (water)
62 ± 50 (Krebs)
287.1 ± 14.4 89.7 ± 4.5 -- 1.68 (water)
1.21 (Krebs)
14.0 ± 1.2
aCuO NPs COOH-coated, CAS 1317-38-0 (PlasmaChem GmbH, Lot YF140114) 99% purity; diameter, 10 - 20 nm; bsurface area, 7.4 ± 0.5 m2 g-1 6.45 ± 0.16 121 ± 91 (water)
128 ± 58 (Krebs)
154.3 ± 6.9 - 0.43 ± 0.02 69.12 (water)
18.15 (Krebs)
- 7.3 ± 0.5
aCuO NPs NH4+-coated, CAS 1317-38-0 (PlasmaChem GmbH, Lot YF140114) 99% purity; diameter, 10 - 20 nm; bsurface area, 6.1 ± 0.5 m2 g-1 9.53 ± 0.22 46 ± 36 (water)
96 ± 75 (Krebs)
185.9 ± 7.2 - 0.52 ± 0.02 18.6 (water)
12.22 (Krebs)
27.7 ± 0.5
aCuO NPs PEG-coated, CAS 1317-38-0 (PlasmaChem GmbH, Lot YF140114) 99% purity; diameter, 10 - 20 nm 7.46 ± 0.42 100 ± 36 (water)
189 ± 113(Krebs)
105.0 ± 3.5 - 0.29 ± 0.01 52.02 (water)
17.44 (Krebs)
- 16.8 ± 0.4
  1. aSupplied as dry powders, bespoke design and production of spherical particles for the NANOSOLUTIONS project via Alexei Antipov, PlasmaChem GmbH
  2. bBrunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area values (mean ± one standard deviation, n = 3) from NANOSOLUTIONS project conducted by A. Besinis
  3. cBased on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of CuO ENMs from a 100 mg l-1 Cu stocks in Milli-Q water where data are mean ± standard error of the mean (S.E.M) with n = 60 measurements
  4. dParticle size distribution measurements (mean ± one standard deviation, n = 3) by Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) on 100 mg l-1 Cu ENM stocks in Milli-Q water or Krebs physiological saline at pH 7.4
  5. eData are means ± S.E.M (n = 3 replicates) of total measured copper concentration by ICP-OES following aqua regia acid digestion of the dry powders, and after normalisation to an initial 0.02 g weight of material; Cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs)
  6. fWith a 0.8 fraction of copper by weight in uncoated CuO NPs
  7. gRelative to the measured copper content in the uncoated CuO NPs
  8. hMaximum slope from rectangular hyperbola function of curve fitting used to estimate the maximum rate of dissolution of copper from the dialysis experiments, in triplicate
  9. iZeta potential of CuO dispersions in ultrapure water (pH 5) as an average of five separate measurements.- Not possible to calculate from the manufacturer’s information on material composition; -- Data not applicable to the test material. The Krebs physiological saline data are from Besinis and Handy, unpublished