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Table 1 Particle characterization

From: HIF-1α is a key mediator of the lung inflammatory potential of lithium-ion battery particles

  LCO NCA NMC 1:1:1a NMC 6:2:2 NMC 8:1:1
Density (g/cm3)b 2.37 2.95 1.93 2.84 1.93
Diameter (μm)c 6.47 6.13 5.16 11.34 7.53
FPF (% of total weight)d 7.21 2.01 1.64 1.84 2.15
Li (%)e 7.1 3.28 7.24 7.16 7.14
Co (%)e 60.2 27.86 20.22 12.12 6.03
Ni (%)e / 27.75 20.22 36.35 48.28
Mn (%)e / / 18.92 11.34 5.65
Al (%)e / 25.98 / / /
O (%)e 32.7 15.13 33.40 33.03 32.9
  1. aThe three digits reflect the Ni:Mn:Co mass ratio in the particles
  2. bMeasured by powder tap density
  3. cMedian hydrodynamic diameter determined by centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) (weight-based distribution)
  4. dFine particle fraction (FPF, ≤ 5 μm) determined by Andersen cascade impaction
  5. eas reported by the producers