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Table 2 Overall effects of PEPs on LVP, HRV, and ECG morphology before, during, and immediately after inhalation exposures and stress tests

From: Inhalation of printer-emitted particles impairs cardiac conduction, hemodynamics, and autonomic regulation and induces arrhythmia and electrical remodeling in rats

   Inhalation ExposureStress Test
Mid-ExpoPost-ExpoPre-StressMid-StressPost-Stress
LV PΔ from BLESP (mmHg)a9.8 ± 5.16.5 ± 2.5*
CtrI (s−1)a−3.9 ± 2.2
Ejection Time (ms)b−1.1 ± 0.5*−2.8 ± 1.1*−3.3 ± 1.7−5.4 ± 2.1*−4.6 ± 2.4
tau (ms)a−0.31 ± 0.13*−0.34 ± 0.17
Relaxation Time (ms)b−1.0 ± 0.2*−1.5 ± 0.4*−2.2 ± 0.7*
dP/dtmax (mmHg/s)a692 ± 260*609 ± 267*
dP/dtmin (mmHg/s)a− 628 ± 343− 613 ± 263*− 666 ± 224*
devP (mmHg)a8.7 ± 3.6*
No overall differences in EDP
HRV & BRSΔ from BLHR (beats/min)21 ± 10
BRS (ms/mmHg)−0.32 ± 0.19   
RMSSD (ms)−1.0 ± 0.5*−1.2 ± 0.6
LF/HF0.31 ± 0.15*
No overall differences in SDNN, LF, and HF
ECG MorphologyΔ from BLPdur (ms)−1.7 ± 0.6*−1.5 ± 0.5*
QT (ms)c1.4 ± 0.7
QTc (ms)c3.0 ± 1.2*5.4 ± 2.6
S amplitude (mV)−0.031 ± 0.014*
No overall differences in PR, QRS, STneg area, and T amplitude
Δ from Pre-stressQT (ms)   8.1 ± 2.9*
QTc (ms)   9.8 ± 2.5*4.5 ± 1.9*
ST neg area (ms*mv)   0.18 ± 0.8*
T amplitude (mV)   0.052 ± 0.017*0.037 ± 0.013*
TpTe (ms)   9.1 ± 4.2*
TpTe/QT (%)   8.5 ± 2.2*
  1. Parameters were assessed as animal-matched change from the average of a 4-day BL exposure to clean air, or as animal-matched change from 20-min pre-stress period immediately before each of three stress tests. n = 4/group except an = 3 for Air group, and bn = 3 for Air group during inhalation exposures only
  2. cInterval terminus measured as T-peak
  3. Effect estimates are presented as difference from time-matched Air control where P < 0.10, with * denoting significant difference from Air group (P < 0.05). “- “denotes P > 0.10