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Table 5 Notable changes of biological parameters in mice after treatment with TiO2 and LPS

From: The combined effect of food additive titanium dioxide and lipopolysaccharide on mouse intestinal barrier function after chronic exposure of titanium dioxide-contained feedstuffs

Group 1 month 3 months 6 months
L Duodenal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Ileal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↓
Ileal IL-1β ↓
Duodenal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↓ Duodenal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↓
Serum DAO ↓
Serum TNF-α ↑
NP Duodenal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Ileal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↓
Ileal Occludin ↑
Ileal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑ Food intake ↓
Serum IL-1β ↓
NP+L Jejunal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Ileal ZO-1 ↑
Jejunal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Serum DAO ↓
Serum DAO ↓
Ileal IL-1β ↓
MP Duodenal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Jejunal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Ileal ZO-1 ↑
Jejunal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Ileal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↑
Serum IL-1β ↓
Ileal microvilli ↓, Blood Ti ↑
Serum IL-6 ↓
MP+L Ileal villi height/ crypt depth ratio ↓
Ileal ZO-1 ↑
Serum LPS ↓, Serum DAO ↓ Ileal ZO-1 ↑