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Table 3 Overview of key parameters of inhalation studies included in the analysis presented

From: Retained particle surface area dose drives inflammation in rat lungs following acute, subacute, and subchronic inhalation of nanomaterials

Material Name Primary particle diameter (nm) BET surface area
(m2/g)
Aerosol characteristics
MMAD (μm) (GSD)
Type of exposurea & duration Mass concentrations
(mg/m3)
Post-exposure timeb Lung retained dose Rat
Sex and strain
Age (or weight) at start of exposure Reference(s)
TiO2 P25 21 51 1.56 (1.72) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 2 or 4 w
1.5c, 5.0c, 15 D3, W4, W26 Measured Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week This work
0.40 (1.82) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
5 D0, D3, W4, W13, W26 Measured Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week This work
0.91 (2.19) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
10 D0, D3, W4, W13, W26 Measured Male
F344
13-week Chézeau, et al. [35]
Gate, et al. [36]
0.91 (2.19) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
10 D0, D3, W4 Measured Male
F344
19-month Gate, et al. [36]
Valentino, et al. [52]
1.44 ± 0.57
(2.60 ± 0.38)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
10 D0, W4, W13, W26, W52 Measured Female
F344
7-week Bermudez, et al. [53]
0.7–1.1
(2.3–3.4)
[HO]
6 h/d for 5 d
2, 10, 50 D0, D16 Measured Male
Wistar
9-week Ma-Hock, et al. [54]
Fine (anatase) 2100
±1500
8.8 1.0 (2.6) [WB]
6 h/d for 5 d
50 D7, D14, W4, W9 Measured Male
F344
180–200 g Driscoll, et al. [55], Driscoll, et al. [56]
1.2–1.3
(1.9–2.6)
[NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.1, 1, 10 D7 Measured Female
F344
11–13 weeks Henderson, et al. [57]
Rutile
pigment
  6 1.44 ± 0.09
(1.71 ± 0.23)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
10, 50, 250 D0, W4, W13, W26, W52 Measured Female
F344
7-week Bermudez, et al. [58]
Bayertitan T
(rutile)
1800 1.9 1.1 (1.6) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
5 D1, W13 Measured Male & female Wistar 8-week Morimoto Y., et al. [59]
CB Printex-90 14 300 0.94 (2.11) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w for 4 w
5c, 15c, 50 D3, W4, W26 Measured Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week This work
1.4–1.6
(2.4–2.7)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w for 13 w
1.1, 7.6, 50.3 D0, W13, W44 Measured Female
F344
7-week Elder, et al. [60]
Gallagher, et al. [61]
0.3–0.5
(2.0–3.2)
[NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w for 4 w
2.9, 9.9, 32.9 D0 Measured Male
Sprague-Dawleyd
6-week Lim, et al. [62]
Elftex 12 37 43 2.02–2.42
(1.76–1.90)
[WB]
7 h/d 5 d/w for
12 w
or
16 h/d 7 d/w or 6 h/d 5 d/w or 4 h/d 1 d/w
for 6 or 12 w
3.5, 13.2, 100 D1
or
D0, W12, W24
Measured Female F344 11–15 weeks Wolff, et al. [63]
Henderson, et al. [64]
Monarch 880 16 220 0.88
(3.3)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 6.5 w or 13 w
1.1, 7.1, 52.8 D0, W12, W32 Measured Male
F344
200–250 g Driscoll, et al. [65]
Sterling V 70 37 0.8
(3.2)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
48.2 D0, W13, W48 Measured Female
F344
7-week Elder, et al. [60]
Gallagher, et al. [61]
MWCNT MWNT-7 88 ± 5
L 5.0 ± 4.5
24–28 1.78 (1.69) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.15c, 0.5c, 1.5 D3, W4, W26 Measured Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week This work
1.2–1.3
(2.4–3.4)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 2 w
0.2, 1, 5 D0 Computed Male & female F344 6-week Umeda, et al. [66]
1.4–1.6
(2.3–3.0)
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
0.2, 1, 5 D0 Measured Male & female F344 6-week Kasai, et al. [45]
Baytube
(micronized)
10–15
L 0.30
(0.05–1.35)
210 2.9 (1.9) [NO]
6 h
11, 241 D7, W13 Measured Male
Wistar
9-week Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, et al. [67]
Pauluhn, et al. [68]
255 3.05 (2.0) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
0.1, 0.4, 1.5, 6 D1, W4, W13, W26 Measured Male
Wistar
9-week Pauluhn [46], Pauluhn, et al. [68]
Nikkiso 44
L Not provided
69 : 63 nm (1.5)e
L: 1.1 mm (2.7)e
[WB]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.37 D3, W4, W13 Computed Male
Wistar
9-week Morimoto Yasuo, et al. [69]
Oyabu, et al. [70]
NM-401 67 (24–138)
L 4.0 ± 0.37
18 0.79 (1.83) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.54, 1.49 D3, W4 Measured Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week Gate, et al. [14]
Graphistrength
C100
(NM-402)
12.1
L 1.07 ± 1.10
225.6 1.62–2.03
(2.5–4.7)
[NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 13 w
0.05, 0.25, 5 D1, W13 Computed Male & female Wistar 8-week Pothmann, et al. [47]
0.7–2.0
(2.1–4.1)
[HO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
0.15, 0.57, 2.86 D3, D24 Computed Male & female Wistar 8–9 weeks Ma-Hock, et al. [71]
NM-403 12 (5–37)
L 0.40 ± 0.03
135 1.94 (1.48) [NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.50, 1.48 D3, W4 Computed Female Sprague-Dawley 13-week Gate, et al. [14]
JC 162 Incheon 8–10
L 0.1–0.2
400–600 0.38–1.02
(2.34–3.08)
[NO]
6 h/d 5 d/w
for 4 w
0.26, 1.44, 4.25 D1, D7, W4 Measured Male Sprague-Dawley 8-week Kim JK, et al. [72]
  Nanocyl
NC 7000
5–15
L 0.1–10
250–300 0.7–2.0
(2.1–4.1)
[HO]
6 h/d 5 d
2.4, 8.4, 29.8 D3, D23 Computed Male Wistar 9-week Ma-Hock, et al. [73]
  1. aWB: whole-body; HO: head-only; NO: nose-only
  2. bD for day, W for week
  3. c6h-equivalent concentrations created by modulating the exposure time to the aerosols
  4. dnormal and overweight rats
  5. eGeometric mean (geometric standard deviation) measured by scanning electron microscopy