Inflammatory mediator release in lung homogenates and BALF supernatants following single high dose exposure to TiO
NPs. Changes in MCP-1 (A , homogenates; E , BALF supernatants), MIP-2 (B , homogenates; F , BALF supernatants), TNF-α (C , homogenates) and IL-10, (D , homogenates) following inhalation (blue squares) or instillation (green circles) are graphed as percentage of controls. Values are group means ± SE (n = 5). ND, levels were below the limit of detection by ELISA (TNF-α and IL-10 ~15 pg/mL). *, significantly different from corresponding controls; Φ, significantly different between exposure methods (p < 0.05).