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Fig. 5 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 5

From: Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

Fig. 5

A schematic diagram elucidating signalling pathway of TLR4 and TLR9 responsible for GFNs-induced cytotoxicity. GFNs can be recognized by TLRs, thus activate IKK and IκB by a MyD88-dependent mechanism, resulting in the release of NF-κB subunits and initiating the translocation into the nucleus. Thus, pro-inflammatory factors were transcribed and secreted out of nucleus, modulating the immune responses initiating programmed autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis

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