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Table 1 Toxicity of GFNs in organs

From: Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

Graphene family nanomaterials Physiochemial properties and functionalization Animals Dose and time incubation Effects Reference
Nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) No information C57BL/6 mice 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, intratracheal instillation
0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 1 week
Result in acute lung injury (ALI) and chronic pulmonary fibrosis [30]
Few layer graphene (FLG) No information ICR mice 0.1, or 1 mg/mL, oral gavage or intratracheal instillation 3 or 28 days Intratracheally instilled FLG resulted in acute lung injury and pulmonary edema, FLG didn’t show detectable absorption through the gastrointestinal tract by oral gavage. [61]
Graphene platelets (GPs) No information Mice inhalation exposure, 1 day-6 weeks GP caused acute inflammation in lung at 1 day, and alleviated inflammation in lung after 6 weeks [48]
Graphene nanoplatelets (GPs) Thickness of 10 nm
Size of 5–30 μm
Female C57BL/6 strain mice 50 μg per mouse, pharyngeal aspiration or intrapleural installation, 24 h- 7 days Large GP were inflammogenic in both the lung and the pleural space [24]
GO Thickness of 0.93 nm
Size of 150–250 nm
Sprague-Dawley rats 0.5 or 4 mg/m3, inhalation exposure, single 6 h The single inhalation exposure to GO induce minimal toxic responses in rat lungs [235]
GO Thickness of 0.9 nm
size of l-GO: 1–5 μm
size of s-GO:100–500 nm
Male ICR mice 1.0 mg/kg, intravenous injected, 24 h Accumulated mainly in the liver and lungs [78]
GO Thickness of < 4 nm
size of l-GO:237.9 ± 79.3 nm; size of s-GO: 54.9 ± 23.1 nm
Male and female ICR-strain mice 24 mg/kg, tail vein injected, 5 days Didn’t effect pup numbers, sex ratio, weights, pup survival rates or pup growth, low toxicity for male reproduction [66]
GO Thickness of ~1.0 nm
sizes of 10–800 nm
Kun Ming mice 1,10 mg/ kg, intravenous injection 14 days Led to high accumulation, long-time retention, pulmonary edema and granuloma formation [49]
NGO-PEG Thickness of 1 nm
size of 10–800 nm
Male Kunming mice 5 mg/kg, tail intravenous injection
10 min-24 h
NGO-PEG alleviated acute tissue injuries, decreased the early weight loss [81]
GO
GO-PEG
RGO-PEG
nRGO-PEG
Thickness of 0.94,1.22, 4.43 and 5.66 nm,
size of 450, 25, 50 and 27 nm
Balb/c mice 4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection
1, 7 and 30 days
Accumulated in the reticuloendothelial (RES) system including liver and spleen over a long time [31]
GO
Graphene quantum dots
(GQD)
Thickness of GO, GQD: 0.5–1 nm
sizes of GO, GQD: 3–5 nm
Balb/c mice 20 mg/kg intravenous injection or intraperitoneal injection 14 days GO appeared toxic and caused death
GQD revealed no accumulation in organs and caused low cytotoxicity
[176]
Purified graphene oxide (pGO) Thickness of 1–2 nm,
lateral dimension of 100–500 nm
Female C57Bl/6 mice 50 μg/animal, intraperitoneal injection
24 h, 7 days,
Induced moderate inflammation and granuloma formation following [99]
GO Thickness of 3.9 and 4.05 nm,
size of 350 nm and 2 μm
C57BL/6 male mice Series concentrations, subcutaneous injection21 days The micro-size of GO induced much stronger inflammation responses than the nanosized GO [34]
GO Size of 1110 to 16 200 nm C57BL/6 J mice 2 or 20 mg/kg, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection Both GO and a reduction of GO result in immune cell infiltration, uptake, and clearance. [84]
RGO-iron oxide nanoparticles (rGO-IONP) Thickness of ˂10 nm
Size of 15.0 ± 2.0 nm
Female Balb/c mice 400 μg, subcutaneous injection, RGO–IONP can effectively inactivate multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in subcutaneous abscesses [236]
GO
GO-PEG
Thickness of 0.94, 1.22, 4.43 and 5.66 nm,
size of 450, 25, 50 and 27 nm
Female balb/c mice 100 mg/kg, Oral administration; 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, 1, 7 and 30 days No obvious tissue uptake via oral administration, indicating the rather limited intestinal adsorption of those nanomaterials [237]
RGO sizes of small rGO: 87.97 ± 30.83,
sizes of large rGO:472.08 ± 249.17 nm
Male C57black/6 mice 60 mg/kg, oral gavage, 5 days RGO affected general locomotor activity, balance, and neuromuscular coordination, but showed little change in exploratory, anxiety-like, or learning and memory behaviors. [31]