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Table 2 Toxicity of GFNs in cell models

From: Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

Graphene family nanomaterias Physiochemial properties and Functionalization Cells Dose and time incubation Effects Reference
Pristine graphene Thickness of 2–3 nm, size of 500–1000 nm Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL, 48 h Depleted of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS, triggered apoptosis [83]
Pristine graphene Thickness of 3–5 nm, size of 100–110 nm Rat pheochromocytoma cells PC12 cells 10–100 μg/mL 1–48 h Increased LDH release, ROS levels and caspase3 activation, induced apoptosis [82]
Graphene oxide(GO) Four different diameters (342–765 nm) Human Erythrocytes
Human skin
fibroblasts CRL-2522
3.125-200 μg/mL 24 h Hemolytic activity, ROS generation, LDH release, decreased cell viability [106]
GO Thickness of 0.9 nm
lateral size: s-GO, 160 ± 90 nm;
m-GO, 430 ± 300 nm;
l-GO, 780 ± 410 nm
Human lung epithelial A549 cells 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL 24 h Dose-dependent oxidative stress, cell viability decreased at high concentration [119]
GO Thickness of 1 nm, lateral dimension of 200–500 nm Human lung fibroblast cells HLF cells 10–500 μg/mL 2–24 h Oxidative stress induced, concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity [148]
GO Size distribution: 592 ± 10.9 nm in PBS, 1272 ± 56.2 nm in FBS HeLa cells 0–80 μg/mL 24 h Released LDH, increased MDA and ROS generation, decreased SOD, reduction of cell viability, [120]
GO smaller-sized GO: 50–350 nm
intermediate-sized GO: 350–750 nm
larger-sized GO: 750–1,300 nm
Macrophage cell J774A.1
THP-1 cells
HEK293 cells
MEL cells
HUT102 cells
20 μg/mL 1-24 h Size-dependent M1 induction of macrophages,
pro-inflammatory responses
[94]
GO thickness: < 2 nm,
lateral size: 450 nm
Mouse CT26 colon carcinoma cell 50–100 μg/mL 18 h Triggered autophagy, enhances cell death [206]
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Thickness of 11 ± 4 nm
lateral size of 3.8 ± 0.4 μm
Human mesenchymal stem
cells (hMSCs)
0.01–100 μg/mL 1–24 h Induced DNA fragmentations and chromosomal aberrations [118]
RGO Thickness of 7 nm
lateral size of 40 nm
human liver carcinoma
cells (HepG2 cells)
1–200 mg/L 4–72 h Dose-dependent DNA damage, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity [31]
RGO Lateral size of 100–1500 nm U87 and U118 glioma
cell lines
0–100 μg/mL 24 h Reduction of cell proliferation and cell viability, induced apoptosis [238]
Bacterially reduced graphene oxide (B-rGO) Thickness of 4.23 nm
average size of 3833 nm
MCF-7 cells 20–100 μg/mL 24–72 h Increased ROS generation, released LDH, dose-dependent toxicity [181]
Reduced graphene oxide
Nanoribbons(rGONR)
Thickness of 1 nm,
length of 10 μm,
width of 50–200 nm,
hMSCs 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 μg/mL 96 h Caused DNA fragmentations and chromosomal aberrations [239]
Reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGOSs) Thicknesses of ~1.2 nm,
lateral sizes of ~2 μm
hMSCs 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 μg/mL 96 h Caused slight cell membrane damage and cytotoxicity [239]
Graphene-dextran
(GO-DEX)
Thickness of 2.8 nm
size of 50–100 nm
HeLa cells 10, 50,200 mg/L 24, 48, 72 h GO-DEX remarkably reduced cell toxicity [91]
GNP-COOH
GNP-NH2
Thickness of GNP-COOH: 735.9 nm
thickness of GNP-NH2: 945.5 nm
Human bronchial epithelial
cells (BEAS-2B cells)
10, 50 mg/L 24 h Caused single stranded DNA damage, genotoxicity and hypomethylation [240]
PEG-DSPE (O-GNR-PEG-DSPE) Width of 125–220 nm, lengths between of 500–2500 nm HeLa cells
NIH-3 T3 cells
SKBR3 cells
MCF7 cells
10–400 μg/mL 24–48 h Dose-dependent and time-dependent decrease in cell viability [138]
PEI-GO,
PEG-GO,
LA-PEG-GO
Thickness of 1–2 nm lateral width of 100–500 nm Human lung fibroblast cells 1, 10, 50, 100 μg/ml 24 h Caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity [15]
PEG-GQD Sizes of 3–5 nm HeLa cells and A549 cells 10–160 μg/mL 24 h No noticeable cytotoxicity [176]
FBS-GO Thickness of 4.0–18.0 nm A549 cells 0–200 μg/mL 24 h Cytotoxicity of GO was greatly mitigated at 10 % FBS [166]