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Table 2 Different bio-corona and biological effects of nanoparticles reaching the gastro-intestinal tract through different modalities

From: The unrecognized occupational relevance of the interaction between engineered nanomaterials and the gastro-intestinal tract: a consensus paper from a multidisciplinary working group

Modality Primary bio-corona (before coming in contact with the GI tract) Available information on changes of biocorona during GI Transit Effects on biokinetics/activity Relative amount of nanoparticles
Ingested with food Derived from interaction with food Biocorona formed with the milk protein beta-lactoglobulin may be replaced by biliary salts in small intestine The complex nano-particle/biliary salts may be efficiently absorbed in the small intestine. High
Ingested with air (aerophagia) No primary biocorona A pepsin biocorona is formed in the stomach. May affect the agglomeration status of nanoparticles Low
Ingested after muco-ciliary clearance Formed with surfactant phospholipids and proteins in the lung. Unknown Unknown Substantial
Reaching the GI tract through systemic circulation (after lung crossing) Formed with surfactant phospholipids and proteins in the lung. It may be partly modified by the contact with blood proteins (128) and by the contact with bile before being excreted in the gut Unknown Unknown Low