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Fig. 7 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 7

From: Silver nanoparticles promote procoagulant activity of red blood cells: a potential risk of thrombosis in susceptible population

Fig. 7

Effects of AgNP on RBCs isolated from cancer patients and its synergy effects with anti-cancer drug. Isolated RBCs from healthy control (black circle, n = 8) or from cancer patients (red circle, n = 6) were treated with distilled water (DW; control), various concentrations of AgNP for 4 h, and then (a) ROS generation and (b) PS exposure were examined using flow cytometry. (a, b, left) Dot plots showed individual assessment and (a, b, right) line graphs showed overall comparative evaluation between healthy controls (black line) and cancer patients (red line). AgNP alone group (black circle) and paclitaxel co-treated group (blue square) were compared by measurement of (c) ROS generation (n = 4) and (d) PS exposure (n = 4). Paclitaxel (25 μM, 15 min) was added after AgNP treatment for 4 h. Values are mean ± S.E. of 4–8 independent experiments, * represents significant differences from AgNP alone group (p < 0.05)

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